Prediabetes is blood sugar (blood glucose) that is higher than normal but lower than diabetes level. Other names for prediabetes are impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or borderline diabetes.

Prediabetes is diagnosed when fasting glucose is between 100 to 126 mg/dl or hemoglobin A1C is between 5.7 to 6.4%. People are often unaware if they have prediabetes because they usually do not have symptoms. Everyone 35 years and older should have their fasting blood glucose checked at an annual exam.


–Overweight or obese
–Excess Weight in the abdomen
–Sedentary lifestyle
–Age 35 or older
–A family member has diabetes
–Latino, Native American, African American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander
–A pregnancy with gestational diabetes or a baby 9 pounds or more
–Blood pressure is high, or controlled by medication
–HDL cholesterol is less than 35, or triglycerides are over 250


You can test for fasting blood glucose when you haven’t eaten for 8 hours or more. The normal range for fasting glucose is 70-99. Prediabetes is when fasting glucose is 100-125. Diabetes is 126 or more.

You can test for A1C regardless of whether you have eaten. The normal range for A1C is between 4 and 5.6%. Prediabetes is when A1C is between 5.7 and 6.4%. Diabetes is 6.5% or more.


–Avoid sugary beverages. Try to avoid added sugars, and try to avoid high fructose corn syrup. Choose a flavored beverage with less than 5 grams of sugar per serving. Even better, drink water, seltzer, or sparkling water.

–Include non-starchy vegetables at lunch and dinner. Non-starchy vegetables have little effect on blood sugar. Starches, including starchy vegetables, raise blood sugar. These include potatoes, peas, and corn.

–Choose whole grains more often, such as whole wheat bread, whole wheat pasta, couscous, brown rice, quinoa, and oatmeal.

–If you are overweight or obese, losing just 5% to 10% of your body weight should reduce your susceptibility to prediabetes or diabetes.

–Increase physical activity. Exercise lowers blood sugar, burns calories, and reduces stress. A basic program includes cardio exercise 3-5 days/week (150 minutes/week) and resistance exercise 2 days/week.